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Autism Rate: The Same in Children and Adults?

The following is an abstract. The full article is available only for paid subscribers, sadly.

Note: The "autism rate" refers only to what we define as autism during evaluations. The "rate" is subjective, due to the nature of autism screening. Still, that's autism research for you.

Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults 
in the Community in England
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(5):459-465. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.38

Traolach S. Brugha, MD(NUI), FRCPsych; Sally McManus, MSc; John Bankart, MSc, PhD; Fiona Scott, PhD, CPsychol; Susan Purdon, MSc, PhD; Jane Smith, BSc;Paul Bebbington, PhD, FRCPsych; Rachel Jenkins, MD, FRCPsych; Howard Meltzer, PhD

Context  
To our knowledge, there is no published information on the epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in adults. If the prevalence of autism is increasing, rates in older adults would be expected to be lower than rates among younger adults.

Objective  
To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of adults with ASD living in the community in England.

Conclusions  
Conducting epidemiologic research on ASD in adults is feasible. The prevalence of ASD in this population is similar to that found in children. The lack of an associationwith age is consistent with there having been no increase in prevalence and with its causes being temporally constant. Adults with ASD living in the community are socially disadvantaged and tend to be unrecognized.

Design  
A stratified, multiphase random sample was used in the third national survey of psychiatric morbidity in adults in England in 2007. Survey data were weighted to take account of study design and nonresponse so that the results were representative of the household population.

Setting  
General community (ie, private households) in England.

Participants  
Adults (people 16 years or older).

Main Outcome Measures  
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4 in phase 2 validated against the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised and Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in phase 3. A 20-item subset of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient self-completion questionnaire wasused in phase 1 to select respondents for phase 2. Respondents also provided information on sociodemographics and their use of mental health services.

Results  
Of 7461 adult participants who provided a complete phase 1 interview, 618 completed phase 2 diagnostic assessments. The weighted prevalence of ASD in adults was estimated to be 9.8 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 3.0-16.5). Prevalence was not related to the respondent's age. Rates were higher in men, those without educational qualifications, and those living in rented social (government-financed) housing. There was no evidence of increased use of services for mental health problems.

Author Affiliations
Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester (Drs Brugha, Bankart, and Meltzer and Ms Smith); National Centre for Social Research, London (Ms McManus and Dr Purdon); Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (Dr Scott); Department of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, London (Dr Bebbington); and Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London (Dr Jenkins), England.

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